Written by Markus Horneber, Elke Wolf and the CAM-Cancer Consortium.
Updated February 28, 2017

Propagermanium

References

  1. A new Element: Germanium. Lancet 127, 562 (1886).
  2. Asai, K. Organisches Germanium - Eine Hoffnung für viele Kranke. Semmelweis-Verlag, 27316 Hoya (2001).
  3. Schroeder, H. A. & Balassa, J. J. Abnormal trace metals in man: germanium. J Chronic Dis 20, 211-224 (1967).
  4. Hara, S. et al. Determination of germanium in some plants and animals. Z Naturforsch [C] 45, 1250-1251 (1990).
  5. Lewis, B. L., Frolich, P. N. & Andreae, M. O. Methylgermanium in natural waters. Nature 313, 303-305 (1985).
  6. Expert group on vitamins and minerals. Risk assessment - Germanium. http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/evm_germanium.pdf (last access: 02.06.2010). 2003.
  7. Mironov, V. F., Berliner, E. M. & Gar, T. K. Reactions of Trichlorogermane with Acrylic Acid and its Derivatives. Zhurnal Obshchei Khimil 37 Nr. 4, 962. 1967.
  8. Kaplan, B. J., Parish, W. W., Andrus, G. M., Simpson, J. S. & Field, C. J. Germane facts about germanium sesquioxide: I. Chemistry and anticancer properties. J Altern Complement Med 10, 337-344 (2004).
  9. Tao, S. H. & Bolger, P. M. Hazard assessment of germanium supplements. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 25, 211-219 (1997).
  10. Kaplan, B. J., Andrus, G. M. & Parish, W. W. Germane facts about germanium sesquioxide: II. Scientific error and misrepresentation. J Altern Complement Med 10, 345-348 (2004).
  11. Suzuki, F., Brutkiewicz, R. R. & Pollard, R. B. Importance of T-cells and macrophages in the antitumor activity of carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132). Anticancer Res 5, 479-483 (1985).
  12. Suzuki, F., Brutkiewicz, R. R. & Pollard, R. B. Ability of sera from mice treated with Ge-132, an organic germanium compound, to inhibit experimental murine ascites tumours. Br J Cancer 52, 757-763 (1985).
  13. Suzuki, F., Brutkiewicz, R. R. & Pollard, R. B. Cooperation of Lymphokine(s) and Macrophages in Expression of Antitumor Activity of Carboxyethylgermanium Sesquioxide (Ge-132). Anticancer Res 6, 177-182 (1986).
  14. Aso, H. et al. Induction of interferon and activation of NK cells and macrophages in mice by oral administration of Ge-132, an organic germanium compound. Microbiol Immunol 29, 65-74 (1985).
  15. Miyao, K., Onishi, T., Asai, K., Tomizawa, S. & Suzuki, F. Current Chemotherapy and Infectious diseases. Nelson, J. D. (ed.), pp. 1527-1529 (American society of Microbiology, Washington DC,1980).
  16. Tsutsumi, Y. et al. Effectiveness of propagermanium treatment in multiple myeloma patients. Eur J Haematol 73, 397-401 (2004).
  17. Mizushima, Y., Satoh, H. & Miyao, K. Germanium in biologischen Systemen. Lekim, D. & Samochowiec, L. (eds.), pp. 189-210 (Semmelweis-Verlag, 27316 Hoya,2007).
  18. FDA-import alert no.54-07. FDA-import alert no.54-07. 10-2-2009. Ref Type: Electronic Citation
  19. Bundesinstitut für gesundheitlichen Verbraucherschutz und Veterinärmedizin Warnung vor Germanium. Dtsch Ärztebl 97, 2418 (2000).
  20. Hirayama, C., Suzuki, H., Ito, M., Okumura, M. & Oda, T. Propagermanium: a nonspecific immune modulator for chronic hepatitis B. J Gastroenterol 38, 525-532 (2003).
  21. Brutkiewicz, R. R. & Suzuki, F. Biological activities and antitumor mechanism of an immunopotentiating organogermanium compound, Ge-132 (review). In Vivo 1, 189-203 (1987).
  22. Mainwaring, M. G., Poor, C., Zander, D. S. & Harman, E. Complete remission of pulmonary spindle cell carcinoma after treatment with oral germanium sesquioxide. Chest 117, 591-593 (2000).
  23. Hess, B. et al. Tubulointerstitial nephropathy persisting 20 months after discontinuation of chronic intake of germanium lactate citrate. Am J Kidney Dis 21, 548-552 (1993).
  24. Sanai, T. et al. Germanium dioxide-induced nephropathy: a new type of renal disease. Nephron 54, 53-60 (1990).
  25. Sanai, T. et al. Chronic tubulointerstitial changes induced by germanium dioxide in comparison with carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide. Kidney Int 40, 882-890 (1991).
  26. Anger, F., Anger, J. P., Guillou, L., Sado, P. A. & Papillon, A. [Subacute and subchronic oral toxicity of beta-bis carboxyethyl sesquioxide of germanium in the rat]. J Toxicol Clin Exp 11, 421-436 (1991).
Citation Markus Horneber, Elke Wolf, CAM-Cancer Consortium. Propagermanium [online document]. http://ws.cam-cancer.org/The-Summaries/Dietary-approaches/Propagermanium. February 28, 2017.

References

  1. A new Element: Germanium. Lancet 127, 562 (1886).
  2. Asai, K. Organisches Germanium - Eine Hoffnung für viele Kranke. Semmelweis-Verlag, 27316 Hoya (2001).
  3. Schroeder, H. A. & Balassa, J. J. Abnormal trace metals in man: germanium. J Chronic Dis 20, 211-224 (1967).
  4. Hara, S. et al. Determination of germanium in some plants and animals. Z Naturforsch [C] 45, 1250-1251 (1990).
  5. Lewis, B. L., Frolich, P. N. & Andreae, M. O. Methylgermanium in natural waters. Nature 313, 303-305 (1985).
  6. Expert group on vitamins and minerals. Risk assessment - Germanium. http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/evm_germanium.pdf (last access: 02.06.2010). 2003.
  7. Mironov, V. F., Berliner, E. M. & Gar, T. K. Reactions of Trichlorogermane with Acrylic Acid and its Derivatives. Zhurnal Obshchei Khimil 37 Nr. 4, 962. 1967.
  8. Kaplan, B. J., Parish, W. W., Andrus, G. M., Simpson, J. S. & Field, C. J. Germane facts about germanium sesquioxide: I. Chemistry and anticancer properties. J Altern Complement Med 10, 337-344 (2004).
  9. Tao, S. H. & Bolger, P. M. Hazard assessment of germanium supplements. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 25, 211-219 (1997).
  10. Kaplan, B. J., Andrus, G. M. & Parish, W. W. Germane facts about germanium sesquioxide: II. Scientific error and misrepresentation. J Altern Complement Med 10, 345-348 (2004).
  11. Suzuki, F., Brutkiewicz, R. R. & Pollard, R. B. Importance of T-cells and macrophages in the antitumor activity of carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132). Anticancer Res 5, 479-483 (1985).
  12. Suzuki, F., Brutkiewicz, R. R. & Pollard, R. B. Ability of sera from mice treated with Ge-132, an organic germanium compound, to inhibit experimental murine ascites tumours. Br J Cancer 52, 757-763 (1985).
  13. Suzuki, F., Brutkiewicz, R. R. & Pollard, R. B. Cooperation of Lymphokine(s) and Macrophages in Expression of Antitumor Activity of Carboxyethylgermanium Sesquioxide (Ge-132). Anticancer Res 6, 177-182 (1986).
  14. Aso, H. et al. Induction of interferon and activation of NK cells and macrophages in mice by oral administration of Ge-132, an organic germanium compound. Microbiol Immunol 29, 65-74 (1985).
  15. Miyao, K., Onishi, T., Asai, K., Tomizawa, S. & Suzuki, F. Current Chemotherapy and Infectious diseases. Nelson, J. D. (ed.), pp. 1527-1529 (American society of Microbiology, Washington DC,1980).
  16. Tsutsumi, Y. et al. Effectiveness of propagermanium treatment in multiple myeloma patients. Eur J Haematol 73, 397-401 (2004).
  17. Mizushima, Y., Satoh, H. & Miyao, K. Germanium in biologischen Systemen. Lekim, D. & Samochowiec, L. (eds.), pp. 189-210 (Semmelweis-Verlag, 27316 Hoya,2007).
  18. FDA-import alert no.54-07. FDA-import alert no.54-07. 10-2-2009. Ref Type: Electronic Citation
  19. Bundesinstitut für gesundheitlichen Verbraucherschutz und Veterinärmedizin Warnung vor Germanium. Dtsch Ärztebl 97, 2418 (2000).
  20. Hirayama, C., Suzuki, H., Ito, M., Okumura, M. & Oda, T. Propagermanium: a nonspecific immune modulator for chronic hepatitis B. J Gastroenterol 38, 525-532 (2003).
  21. Brutkiewicz, R. R. & Suzuki, F. Biological activities and antitumor mechanism of an immunopotentiating organogermanium compound, Ge-132 (review). In Vivo 1, 189-203 (1987).
  22. Mainwaring, M. G., Poor, C., Zander, D. S. & Harman, E. Complete remission of pulmonary spindle cell carcinoma after treatment with oral germanium sesquioxide. Chest 117, 591-593 (2000).
  23. Hess, B. et al. Tubulointerstitial nephropathy persisting 20 months after discontinuation of chronic intake of germanium lactate citrate. Am J Kidney Dis 21, 548-552 (1993).
  24. Sanai, T. et al. Germanium dioxide-induced nephropathy: a new type of renal disease. Nephron 54, 53-60 (1990).
  25. Sanai, T. et al. Chronic tubulointerstitial changes induced by germanium dioxide in comparison with carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide. Kidney Int 40, 882-890 (1991).
  26. Anger, F., Anger, J. P., Guillou, L., Sado, P. A. & Papillon, A. [Subacute and subchronic oral toxicity of beta-bis carboxyethyl sesquioxide of germanium in the rat]. J Toxicol Clin Exp 11, 421-436 (1991).